IGNOU Jan & July 2022 Solved assignment no.1

What is Protein? Give its functions and digestion in detail.

Proteins are complex molecules composed of amino acids that perform a wide range of functions in the body. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues, and play a key role in the functioning of enzymes, hormones, and immune system components.

Functions of Proteins:

  1. Building and repairing tissues: Proteins play a crucial role in building and repairing tissues, including muscles, bones, skin, and organs.
  2. Enzymes: Proteins are essential components of enzymes, which are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in the body.
  3. Transport: Proteins help transport molecules throughout the body, including oxygen and nutrients to cells.
  4. Hormones: Certain proteins act as hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various bodily functions.
  5. Immune system: Proteins are essential components of the immune system, helping to identify and neutralize foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria.

Digestion of Proteins:

Proteins are broken down into their constituent amino acids during digestion. The process of protein digestion begins in the stomach, where hydrochloric acid and enzymes called proteases break down the protein molecules into smaller fragments called peptides.

The peptides then move to the small intestine, where they are further broken down by enzymes called peptidases into individual amino acids. These amino acids are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, where they are used to build new proteins or broken down further for energy.

proteins are complex molecules that perform a range of essential functions in the body. They are broken down into their constituent amino acids during digestion, which are then used to build new proteins or broken down further for energy. Understanding the functions and digestion of proteins is important for maintaining a healthy diet and overall wellness.

Comment on the following briefly-
a. The B- Vitamins act as coenzymes.
b. Sodium and potassium maintains fluid balance within the cell.
c. RDAs are influenced by activity level.

a. The statement is correct. B-vitamins are essential micronutrients that function as coenzymes in many metabolic reactions in the body. They are involved in energy production, amino acid metabolism, and the synthesis of DNA and RNA.

b. The statement is also correct. Sodium and potassium are electrolytes that play a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance within the cell. Sodium is primarily found in extracellular fluid, while potassium is primarily found in intracellular fluid. Together, they help regulate the movement of fluids and nutrients into and out of cells.

c. This statement is also true. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for nutrients are influenced by a variety of factors, including age, sex, weight, and activity level. Individuals who engage in more physical activity may require higher levels of certain nutrients to support their energy needs and maintain optimal health.

a. Discuss factors affecting food budgeting.
b. Explain how microbes can cause food spoilage.

a. Factors affecting food budgeting:

  1. Income: One of the most significant factors affecting food budgeting is income. People with higher incomes tend to be more flexible with their food budgets and can afford to purchase more expensive items.
  2. Family size: The size of a family can also have a significant impact on food budgeting. Larger families may need to purchase more food to accommodate everyone, which can increase the overall cost.
  3. Geographical location: The cost of food can vary significantly depending on the geographical location. Food tends to be more expensive in urban areas compared to rural areas.
  4. Food preferences: Food preferences can also impact food budgeting. People who prefer to eat organic or specialty foods may need to allocate more money towards their food budget.
  5. Time constraints: People who are short on time may opt for convenience foods, which tend to be more expensive than cooking meals from scratch.

b. How microbes can cause food spoilage:

Food spoilage is a natural process that occurs when microbes such as bacteria, yeast, and mold break down food. These microbes thrive in moist environments and can quickly grow and multiply, leading to spoilage.

Bacteria are the most common cause of food spoilage. They can cause food to spoil by breaking down the proteins and carbohydrates in food, producing foul-smelling compounds and gases in the process. Yeast and mold can also cause food spoilage, especially in baked goods and dairy products.

To prevent food spoilage, it is essential to store food properly, follow food safety guidelines, and consume food before its expiration date. Proper refrigeration, freezing, and cooking can also help prevent the growth of microbes and extend the shelf life of food.

In addition, there are several types of food spoilage, including:

  1. Microbial spoilage: As mentioned earlier, microbial spoilage is caused by bacteria, yeast, and mold. This type of spoilage can result in discoloration, off-flavors, and bad odors.
  2. Enzymatic spoilage: Enzymatic spoilage occurs when enzymes naturally present in food break down the food’s structure, texture, and color. This type of spoilage is often seen in fruits and vegetables, which can become soft and mushy as they ripen.
  3. Chemical spoilage: Chemical spoilage can occur when food comes into contact with oxygen, light, or other chemicals. This type of spoilage can result in rancidity or a change in color.

understanding the factors that affect food budgeting and how microbes can cause food spoilage is essential for maintaining a healthy and cost-effective diet. Proper food storage, safety, and handling techniques can help prevent food spoilage and ensure that food stays fresh and safe to consume.

a. Elaborate points to be considered while selection of energy giving foods.
b. Elaborate different methods to enhance nutritive value of foods.

a. Points to be considered while selection of energy giving foods:

  1. Nutrient content: When selecting energy-giving foods, it is important to consider their nutrient content. Foods that are high in nutrients such as fiber, vitamins, and minerals are more likely to provide sustained energy compared to foods that are high in sugar or refined carbohydrates.
  2. Glycemic index: The glycemic index is a measure of how quickly a food raises blood sugar levels. Foods with a low glycemic index, such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, provide sustained energy, while foods with a high glycemic index, such as sugary snacks and white bread, provide a quick burst of energy followed by a crash.
  3. Fiber content: Foods that are high in fiber, such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, can provide sustained energy by slowing down the digestion process and regulating blood sugar levels.
  4. Protein content: Protein is an important nutrient for sustained energy. Foods that are high in protein, such as lean meats, eggs, and beans, can provide long-lasting energy and help reduce cravings between meals.
  5. Fat content: Healthy fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, and avocado, can provide sustained energy and help regulate blood sugar levels.

b. Different methods to enhance nutritive value of foods:

  1. Cooking methods: The way food is prepared can significantly impact its nutrient content. For example, cooking vegetables lightly can help preserve their nutrient content, while overcooking can lead to nutrient loss.
  2. Food combinations: Combining different foods can enhance their nutrient value. For example, combining a source of vitamin C with iron-rich foods can help improve iron absorption.
  3. Sprouting: Sprouting grains, seeds, and legumes can increase their nutrient content and make them easier to digest.
  4. Fermentation: Fermentation is a process that can increase the nutrient content of food and improve digestion. Examples of fermented foods include yogurt, kefir, kimchi, and sauerkraut.
  5. Soaking and boiling: Soaking and boiling grains, beans, and nuts can help reduce their anti-nutrient content and improve nutrient absorption.

In conclusion, selecting energy-giving foods based on their nutrient content, glycemic index, fiber, protein, and fat content is essential for maintaining sustained energy levels throughout the day. Enhancing the nutritive value of foods through cooking methods, food combinations, sprouting, fermentation, and soaking can help maximize their nutrient content and improve their overall health benefits.

Differentiate between
a. Different forms of PEM.

a. Different forms of PEM:

PEM, or protein-energy malnutrition, is a condition that occurs when an individual’s diet is deficient in protein and/or calories. There are two main types of PEM:

  1. Marasmus: Marasmus is a severe form of PEM that occurs when an individual’s diet lacks both protein and calories. It is characterized by a wasting away of body tissue, including muscle and fat, and can lead to stunted growth, weakened immune system, and even death.
  2. Kwashiorkor: Kwashiorkor is another form of PEM that occurs when an individual’s diet is deficient in protein but contains adequate calories. It is characterized by swelling, especially in the legs and feet, as well as skin and hair changes, and can also lead to stunted growth and weakened immune system.

b. IDDM and NIDDM:

IDDM, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and NIDDM, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, are two different types of diabetes.

  1. IDDM: IDDM is also known as type 1 diabetes and occurs when the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Individuals with IDDM require daily insulin injections or an insulin pump to survive.
  2. NIDDM: NIDDM is also known as type 2 diabetes and occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. This type of diabetes is often associated with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, and can usually be managed through diet and exercise, oral medications, or insulin injections.

In conclusion, PEM and diabetes are two different health conditions that can have serious consequences if left untreated. Understanding the different forms of PEM and types of diabetes is important for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Briefly explain functions, sources and deficiency of any one B Vitamins.

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays several important roles in the body.


  1. Red blood cell formation: Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body.
  2. DNA synthesis: Vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of DNA, the genetic material that makes up our cells.
  3. Nerve function: Vitamin B12 helps maintain the health of nerve cells and is essential for proper nerve function.

Vitamin B12 is found naturally only in animal products, including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Some fortified foods, such as breakfast cereals and nutritional yeast, also contain vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 deficiency is relatively rare, but can occur in individuals who follow a strict vegan or vegetarian diet, as well as those who have gastrointestinal disorders that impair nutrient absorption. Symptoms of deficiency can include fatigue, weakness, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, and difficulty walking. Long-term deficiency can lead to anemia, nerve damage, and cognitive impairment.

In conclusion, vitamin B12 plays several important roles in the body, including red blood cell formation, DNA synthesis, and nerve function. It is primarily found in animal products and can lead to serious health consequences if deficient. Vegetarians and those with gastrointestinal disorders should take special care to ensure they are getting enough vitamin B12 through fortified foods or supplements.

How nutritional status is influenced by infection? Describe briefly.

Nutritional status can be significantly influenced by infections, and vice versa. Infections can affect the absorption, utilization, and metabolism of nutrients in the body, leading to malnutrition. Conversely, malnutrition can weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections.

Here are some ways in which infections can affect nutritional status:

  1. Reduced appetite: Infections can cause loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting, which can lead to a reduced intake of food and nutrients.
  2. Malabsorption: Infections can damage the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, impairing nutrient absorption and leading to nutrient deficiencies.
  3. Increased nutrient requirements: Infections can increase the body’s nutrient requirements as the immune system works to fight off the infection.
  4. Impaired nutrient utilization: Infections can impair the body’s ability to utilize nutrients, leading to a buildup of toxins and metabolic waste products.
  5. Diarrhea: Some infections can cause diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration, nutrient loss, and malnutrition.

In addition to affecting nutritional status, malnutrition can also increase the risk of infections. Malnourished individuals have weakened immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections and less able to fight them off.

In conclusion, infections and nutritional status are closely linked. Infections can affect the absorption, utilization, and metabolism of nutrients, leading to malnutrition. Conversely, malnutrition can weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections. It is important to maintain a healthy diet and good hygiene practices to prevent infections and maintain optimal nutritional status.

a. Write about the objectives, beneficiaries and distribution strategy of the
programme launched by the Government of India to control Iodine
deficiency (IDD).
b. Justify the statement” Immunization plays crucial role in preventing
serious childhood diseases”. Also give immunization schedule in support of
your answer

a. The Government of India launched the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme (NIDDCP) in 1992 with the objective of controlling iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in the country. The beneficiaries of this program include pregnant women, lactating mothers, and children below the age of 12. The program aims to ensure that all individuals have access to iodized salt, which is a key source of iodine in the diet.

The distribution strategy of the NIDDCP involves collaboration between the government, salt manufacturers, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to ensure the availability of iodized salt across the country. The government has also implemented measures to monitor the quality of iodized salt and to raise awareness among the public about the importance of iodine for good health.

b. Immunization plays a crucial role in preventing serious childhood diseases by providing immunity against infectious diseases. Vaccines introduce a small amount of a weakened or inactive form of a pathogen into the body, stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and fight off the pathogen in the future.

The immunization schedule recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) includes vaccines for several diseases, including:

  • Tuberculosis (BCG vaccine)
  • Polio (IPV or OPV vaccine)
  • Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP or DTP vaccine)
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccine)
  • Hepatitis B (HBV vaccine)
  • Pneumococcal disease (PCV vaccine)
  • Rotavirus (RV vaccine)

The immunization schedule varies by country, but typically involves a series of vaccinations given during infancy and early childhood, followed by booster doses given at later ages. Immunization is a safe and effective way to protect children from serious diseases and is recommended by healthcare professionals worldwide.

a. Write about the objectives, components and implementation of MDM
b. Write about Nutrition Education and its technique.

a. The Mid-Day Meal (MDM) Programme is a school meal program launched by the Government of India with the objective of providing nutritious meals to school children to improve their health and educational outcomes.

The components of the MDM Programme include the provision of a cooked meal to all children in government and government-aided schools, from classes 1 to 8. The meal consists of a minimum of 450 calories and 12 grams of protein per child per day, with a focus on locally available and seasonal food items. The program also emphasizes the involvement of local communities and parents in the planning, monitoring, and evaluation of the program.

The implementation of the MDM Programme involves a decentralized approach, with state governments responsible for the implementation of the program in their respective states. The central government provides financial assistance and technical support to the states to implement the program effectively. The program is monitored through regular inspections and evaluations to ensure that the meals meet the prescribed nutritional standards and are being served to all children.

b. Nutrition education is a process that aims to educate individuals about the importance of a balanced and healthy diet for optimal health and well-being. The techniques used in nutrition education can vary, depending on the audience and the desired outcome.

Some common techniques used in nutrition education include:

  1. Interactive sessions: Interactive sessions involve active participation from the audience and are designed to engage learners in the learning process. These sessions can include games, quizzes, and group discussions.
  2. Demonstration: Demonstration involves showing learners how to prepare healthy meals and snacks. This technique can be effective in teaching practical skills and promoting healthy eating habits.
  3. Printed materials: Printed materials such as pamphlets, posters, and brochures can be effective in disseminating information about healthy eating habits and nutrition.
  4. Social media: Social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter can be effective in reaching a large audience and promoting healthy eating habits.

Nutrition education can play a crucial role in promoting healthy eating habits and preventing malnutrition. By increasing awareness about the importance of a balanced and healthy diet, nutrition education can help individuals make informed choices about their food intake and improve their overall health and well-being.

Section B – Application Question (AQ) (40 marks)

  1. Based on the steps involved in planning balanced diet prepare a diet for a preschooler
    belonging to low socio-economic group

Planning a balanced diet involves several steps, including identifying nutrient requirements, selecting appropriate foods, and ensuring variety and moderation in the diet. Here is an example of a balanced diet plan for a preschooler belonging to a low socio-economic group:

Nutrient requirements:
Preschoolers require a diet that is rich in nutrients such as protein, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C, and fiber. At this age, children also require adequate calories to support growth and development.

Sample daily meal plan:


  • Oatmeal with milk and sliced banana
  • Whole grain toast with peanut butter
  • Water

Mid-morning snack:

  • Fresh fruit such as an apple or orange
  • Water


  • Whole grain pasta with tomato sauce and ground beef or lentils
  • Steamed broccoli or carrots
  • Milk

Afternoon snack:

  • Whole grain crackers with hummus or cheese
  • Water


  • Baked chicken or fish
  • Brown rice
  • Steamed green beans or spinach
  • Milk

Bedtime snack:

  • Plain yogurt with sliced berries
  • Water

This sample diet plan includes a variety of nutrient-dense foods, such as whole grains, lean protein, fruits, and vegetables, while limiting sugary and processed foods. It also provides adequate calories to support growth and development.

It is important to note that dietary preferences and cultural practices should also be taken into consideration while planning a balanced diet. Consulting with a registered dietitian or a healthcare professional can help ensure that the diet meets the child’s nutrient needs and is appropriate for their individual needs and preferences.

  1. Record height, and weight of 10 (ten) adolescents in your locality and determine their body
    mass index (BMI). Classify them to identify their health status based on WHO classification
    (Refer Unit 25)

To calculate BMI, you need to divide the weight of an individual in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. The formula is:

BMI = weight (kg) / [height (m)]^2

The WHO classification for BMI is as follows:

BMI < 18.5: Underweight
BMI 18.5 – 24.9: Normal weight
BMI 25.0 – 29.9: Overweight
BMI ≥ 30.0: Obese

To determine the health status of an individual based on their BMI using the WHO classification, you would need to calculate their BMI and compare it to the above categories.

It is important to note that BMI is not a perfect indicator of health, as it does not take into account factors such as muscle mass, bone density, and body composition. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate assessment of an individual’s health status.

  1. Visit nearby local vegetable market and select any 5 leafy and other vegetables typically
    grown in your area. List out the points to be considered while selecting those vegetables

When selecting vegetables at a local market, there are several points to consider to ensure that you are getting the best quality and most nutritious produce. Here are some points to keep in mind while selecting leafy and other vegetables typically grown in your area:

  1. Appearance: Choose vegetables that are fresh, brightly colored, and free from blemishes or signs of decay. Avoid vegetables that are wilted, discolored, or have soft spots.
  2. Texture: Choose vegetables that are firm and crisp, with a smooth and shiny skin. Avoid vegetables that are mushy or have a rough or wrinkled skin.
  3. Smell: Choose vegetables that have a fresh and pleasant aroma. Avoid vegetables that have a sour or musty smell.
  4. In season: Choose vegetables that are in season, as they are likely to be fresher and more flavorful. In-season vegetables are also likely to be more affordable than out-of-season produce.
  5. Local: Choose locally grown vegetables, as they are likely to be fresher and have a higher nutrient content. Supporting local farmers also helps to promote sustainable agriculture and reduce the carbon footprint of food transportation.

when selecting vegetables at a local market, it is important to consider appearance, texture, smell, seasonality, and local origin to ensure that you are getting the best quality and most nutritious produce.

  1. Prepare a packed lunch for a school going child. Also describe the following: (10)
    i) Name of the recipe
    ii) List of ingredients
    iii) Method of preparation
    iv) Nutritional Composition

Recipe Name: Veggie Wrap


  • Whole wheat tortilla wrap
  • Hummus
  • Sliced cucumbers
  • Shredded carrots
  • Sliced bell peppers
  • Baby spinach leaves

Method of Preparation:

  1. Lay the whole wheat tortilla wrap flat on a clean surface.
  2. Spread a layer of hummus over the entire wrap.
  3. Add the sliced cucumbers, shredded carrots, sliced bell peppers, and baby spinach leaves on top of the hummus.
  4. Fold the sides of the tortilla towards the center, then roll the wrap tightly from one end to the other.
  5. Cut the wrap in half, and pack it in a lunch box with an ice pack to keep it fresh.

Nutritional Composition:

  • Whole wheat tortilla wrap: 150 calories, 5g protein, 24g carbohydrates, 4g fiber, 2g fat
  • Hummus: 70 calories, 2g protein, 6g carbohydrates, 2g fiber, 4g fat
  • Sliced cucumbers: 10 calories, 0.5g protein, 2g carbohydrates, 0.5g fiber, 0g fat
  • Shredded carrots: 25 calories, 1g protein, 6g carbohydrates, 2g fiber, 0g fat
  • Sliced bell peppers: 10 calories, 0.5g protein, 2g carbohydrates, 0.5g fiber, 0g fat
  • Baby spinach leaves: 5 calories, 0.5g protein, 0.5g carbohydrates, 0.5g fiber, 0g fat

Total nutritional composition:

  • Calories: 270
  • Protein: 5.5g
  • Carbohydrates: 40.5g
  • Fiber: 9.5g
  • Fat: 6g

This recipe is a healthy and nutritious option for a packed lunch for a school going child. It is high in fiber, protein, and vitamins, while being low in fat and calories. The whole wheat tortilla wrap provides complex carbohydrates, while the hummus and vegetables provide protein, fiber, and essential vitamins and minerals. Packing this wrap with a piece of fruit and a water bottle can make a complete and balanced lunch for a child.

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